Jesus Gamarra, continuing the work of his father Alfredo, believe that the Hanan Pacha, who are considered the first culture in the area, were primarily responsible for the andesite construction. Their unique and mysterious methods allowed them to do considerably more intricate and precise homework than cultures that even came after them. A later group called the Uran Pacha built upon the earlier skills and were also responsible for some of the structures later controlled by the Inca civilization. This included the Inca spiritual area that lay in the center of Cusco. This is called the Corincancha. Another civilization called the Ukan Pacha along with the Huari group controls the higher elevations in Peru before the Inca spread to this region. They did not seem to have the same incredible skill with stone cutting and building as the earlier groups have. The types of things they created were in alignment with what researchers would expect from bronze, copper, and stone tools. These relatively soft or easily broken tools could not hold up for long when it shaping much harder materials like andesite and basalt.