The Empire of the Inca

The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru in the early 13th century. The Inca civilization certainly flourished in Peru in the 14th and 15th centuries AD, so much so, their entire empire eventually reached western South America from Quito in the north to Santiago in the south. Starting from 1438, they initially conquered lands surrounding Cuzco, and spreading out from this epicenter. They became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The notoriously documented arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in 1532 abruptly ended the short-lived Inca Empire. The conquistadors plundered what they could, and little remains of these enigmatic empire builders. Everything suggests, even direct accounts from the Incas that a Pre-Inca civilization existed. There are a host of ancient ruins, claimed by the Inca, inherited by the Inca, conquered by the Inca and built by the Inca. Although one label has stuck on each monument or ancient site, it is clear there are many layers of construction, physically and conceptually. Academics and Scholars still debate who built these, monuments, did they inherit? Was there a Pre-Inca culture, but everyone can appreciate how advanced the ‘Inca Ancient Ruins’ found in the highlands of South America. The Inca were largest empire ever seen in the Americas and the largest in the world at that time, yet doubt is cast on their monuments and origins. Here, we shall regard the monuments and ancient ruins as ‘Inca’ setting debate aside, in order to concentrate on the construction, engineering and advancements of their technical prowess. The terminology ‘Pre-Inca’ is used to point out a supposedly vastly ancient styles and method of advanced stonework for the purpose of discussion and is by no means a definitely accepted academic model, with respect to the aforementioned debate.